Abstract:

Vehicles produce 80,000 kJ/min and when close to Meteorological Stations affect the temperature readings at those stations. Urban Heat Index UHI does not include a calculation for the rising number of vehicles in the historical data, therefore the Climate Change models are flawed. Measuring the variances at a station at times of known increased traffic, it is noted, a few number of cars affect the daily average from the station. The station, at all scheduled baseball games, recorded a similar  temp increase. These results negate all claims of record heatwaves in Australia and all records claimed for 2015 Hottest year on record. As no research has ever been published on the effect at stations, the claim "The Science is complete" is false and urgent study should begin immediately.  

Introduction:

If the heat from vehicles is affecting the recorded data, historical data and the upper atmosphere, shouldn't we be looking for ways to reduce it? In this experiment I will show that VHA does exist and is contaminating our data sets used for Climate change models. 

Global warming and its affect on the planet has been highlighted lately by a series of claims regarding record heat waves and the hottest year on record.  CO2 and the greenhouse effect caused by its increase has been well documented, researched and many have laid claim that it is the sole driver of AGW.

However, I had noticed that at some inner city meteorological stations there were temperature rises at times of high traffic volume and theorised that vehicles producing 80,000 kJ/min in numbers were affecting the stations. 

There is no doubt that we do have Climate Change happening on Earth, in the minds of most of its population. World leaders and citizens alike have stood up to  resolve the situation. However, what if we have missed something? What if our efforts in CO2 research is only fixing half the problem or worse none at all.  

There is no study experiment or record into the effects of vehicle heat on temperatures. The Earth does a balancing act with energy, If the temperature of the Earth rises, the planet rapidly emits an increasing amount of heat to space. This large increase in heat loss in response to a relatively smaller increase in temperature—referred to as radiative cooling—is the primary mechanism that prevents runaway heating on Earth.*  CO2 is blamed for holding back the escaping heat causing rises. VHA says we are creating that heat unable to escape. 

With over 1 billion cars on the planet emitting a total of 80 trillion kJ/m could this be adding to the problem. The experiment is to see how a few vehicles  influence temperature rises. 

Method:

Perth Meteorology Station was selected for study as known traffic movements where occuring near the station.  It is 50m from a Inglewood Oval car park, which has 90 bays, and 5 meters from Stancliffe Street. On the 7th February 2016 the following Baseball games were scheduled providing known times of arrival and departure for the station. 

10 Diamond 1 

07-Feb-2016
09:15 AM

10 Diamond 2
07-Feb-2016
09:30 AM

10 Diamond 1 
07-Feb-2016 
12:30 PM 

10 Diamond 1
07-Feb-2016
12:30 PM

10 Diamond 2
07-Feb-2016
03:15 PM

Temperatures were collected from the Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology site using its live feed from the  computerised data collection system available to the public. 

 

The data is only available for a 72 hour period and a copy and paste excel spread sheet is available on this link. (Added to the data is a calculation for variation from the previous reading.

The temperatures were then compared to the the starting and finishing times for baseball games on the 7th February 2016.  BOM reported a suspected record heatwave for Perth over 4 days, including 7th February 2016,  with clear cloudless skies. 

BOM record the temperatures at 30 minute intervals and the temperature rises and falls over those 30 minute periods were compared to the game times for baseball that day. Thirty minute intervals were selected before during and after the game time. Arrival and departure numbers of vehicles are unknown. 

Results: 

09:15   

08:30 09:00  0.9

09:00 09:30  2.1

10:00 10:30  1.6  

10:30 11;00. 1.2 

Wind:           ENE 17 

Pressure      1016 

12:30 

11:00 11:30  1.2

11:30 12:00  1.5

12:30 13;00  0.4

13:00 13:30  0.8 

Wind:           ENE 17 

Pressure      1016 

15:15  

14:00 14:30  - 0.1  

14:30 15:00    1.1  

15:00 15:30    0.3

15:30 16:00  - 1.7

Wind:            SSW 17 

Pressure      1016 

18:00   

17:30 :18:00 -0.8

18:00 18:30   0.2

18:30 19:00  -1.4

19:00 19:30  -0.3 

Wind:            SSE 17 

Pressure      1016 

Supplemental 

01:30

12;30 01:00  -0.9

01:00 01:30   2.7

01:30 02:00  -0.6

02:00 02:30  -0.6

20:30

08:00 8:30  -0.4

08:30 9:00   0.2

09:30 10:00 -0.5

10:00 10:30 -0.7

Average Temperature:           29.2

Average Homogenised Temp 28.6

Average Temp Rise                1.1

Average Temp Fall              - 0.82

Precipitation                          0.00

Discussion: 

For all scheduled games the traffic involved caused the temperature to act in a similar manner, in like or constant hPa and wind conditions, therefore the experiment has proven the influence of traffic on the temperature readings at Perth Meteorology Station. 

09:15 

With vehicles arriving for the 9:15 9:30 games the temperature increased by 2.1 being the largest increase of the test period and a full degree over the average rise for the day. The temperatures then returned to those in the previous half hour periods of 0.4 above average.  

12:30 

After increasing in the previous 90 minutes at 1.2 1.4 1.2 the temperature rise climbed to 1.5 whilst vehicles were departing from the 9:15 9:30 games, arriving the 12:30 game. After 12:30 it corrected for the rises and rose at 0.4 with the dissipating heat from the vehicles equalising against the normal temperature rises. The warm air rising into the upper atmosphere. 

15:15

Being the first reading taken whilst the temperatures are in decline the effect of the traffic is most pronounced with departures from the 12:30 game and arrivals for the 15:15 game causing what was a cooling to trend to rise by 1.1 and 0.3 With vehicles parked and the heat dissipated from the engines at 1.7, double the average cooling / half hour time period as again the dissipating heat from the vehicles equalising against the normal temperature rises. The warm air rising into the upper atmosphere. 

18:00 

Again taken when temperatures were in decline and during departures from the game a -0.8 decline in the previous half hour was matched by a 0.2 rise to be followed by -1.7 as, for the third time, the dissipating heat caused a catch up effect in the data. The warm air rising into the upper atmosphere. 

Supplemental 

01:30 and 20:30 In the data for the day two more variances occurred as were similar in the test period. On contact with the Inglewood Bowls Club these variances matched the Saturday Night closing and Sunday closing for the club. 

The experiment shows that, at all times, when traffic was around Perth Meteorological Station due to the scheduled Baseball games at Inglewood Oval a warming anomaly was seen raising the average temperature at Perth Metro by 0.6c. 

Inglewood oval has parking for 90 vehicles when full and, with so many games on, street parking in Stancliffe Street cannot be ruled out. However, the numbers parked next to the met station would be few. Roaming traffic cannot, also, be ruled out. Needless to say, that approximately 100 vehicles has had a clear impact on the met stations temperature readings for the day. 

If this small number of cars is having such a large effect on the temperatures we can conclude that a greater number of cars around any met station would have a much greater influence of the recordings. As noted in  Vehicle Heat Affect - The Climate Study not begun these temperature increases were noticed in peak hour traffic conditions.

However, judging from the small number needed to influence this station the conclusion can be drawn that all the readings from Kent Town Adelaide and the Sydney Observatory are high and the peak hour traffic accentuates the error. 

Motor Vehicles produce 80,000kJ/min of heat energy and use only 25% to drive the vehicle expelling the rest through the exhaust and for cooling. Inside the car the occupants are protected by an insulating layer, between the motor and the cabin, reducing the the heat felt from it for their comfort. 

The motor vehicle registration statistics match the increasing temperatures in a curve which is more closely aligned that any CO2 model. 

There is no study by any climate scientist on this phenomenon and it has been overlooked . In a highly regarded report recommended by Steven Mosher, a climate scientist for nine years, at Berkeley  Weekday-weekend Differences of Urban Climates from 1987 written by Fumiaki Fujibe it was noted that there was a 0.3 variance in Tokyo on Sundays which he attributed to UHI, however the inclusion of vehicles was not mentioned. 

He also noted It is believed that daytime heat islands extend upward into the mixing layer and have large impact on the dynamics of urban atmosphere, in spite that they are less distinct in the surface temperature fields. The existence of weekday Sunday differences of pressure indicates a possibility that a local circulation is produced due to anthropogenic heat. 

Now that it is clear only a small number of vehicles can make such a big difference to temperature readings doubt must be given to the accuracy of ground based stations and effect it has had on the Historical Data. Vehicle Heat Affect - The Forgotten History. Mr Fujibe's mention that UHI largely impacts on the upper Atmosphere means that VHA, being so easy to produce, would explain the warming troposphere against the cooling  stratosphere as recorded by NASA from its satellites.  

Now that VHA has been shown to be easy to reproduce with so few vehicles doubt must be thrown on all of the climate models, recordings of record heat waves and hottest years. Also with the effect of VHA on temperatures and the knowlege that UHI fueled by VHA does have an effect on the upper atmosphere,  the fact that vehicle registrations closely match the existing models and that more CO2 is found in the upper atmosphere in the less populated Southern Hemisphere, the AGW theory that greenhouse affect is created by the increasing CO2 levels is also in doubt. 

The World Meteorological Organisation says in Section 3.2

KEEPING THE RECORD HOMOGENEOUS AND ADJUSTING CHANGES WITH DIRECT TECHNIQUES

"Changes in and around a meteorological station will lead to inhomogeneities in the data. So it is very important to prevent those changes from happening, at least in long-term stations, suitable for climate analysis."

Before Scientists can truly say that the 'Science is in' regarding AGW, VGA and its effect on warming, the historical data and the upper atmosphere must be explored. 

No Scientist can ignore this easily reproducible experiment and dismiss VHA as unimportant. Failure to do so may leave us trying to fix the AGW problem using the wrong tools causing further damage and wasting countless billions of dollars.  

Research must begin on, hitherto ignored, VHA or at least an attempt to reproduce it in a controlled environment, measuring the effect of distance and numbers.

Reference List:

Alien, Jeanie NASA February 2004  http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/features/200402_tango/

Baseball WA - Competitions https://sportsdesq.imgstg.com/portal/index.cfm?fuseaction=main&...

Bureau of Meteorology Australia http://www.bom.gov.au/products/IDW60901/IDW60901.94608.shtml

Fujibe, Fumiaki 1987 Weekday-Weekend Differences of Urban Climates https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jmsj1965/65/6/65_6_923/_pdf

Google Maps - Inglewood Oval https://www.google.com.au/maps?hl=en

Machida, T1 2002 Vertical and meridional distributions of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio between northern midlatitudes and southern subtropics  http://ps.uci.edu/~rowlandblake/publications/177.pdf ;

Melbourne Aces Basketball 2016  http://web.theabl.com.au/content/page.jsp?sid=t4067&ymd=2013062...;

NASA Earth Observatory http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/EnergyBalance/page4.php

Philp, Len 2016  Vehicle Heat Affect - The Climate Study not begun 

Philp, Len 2016 Vehicle Heat Affect - The Forgotten History.

Unknown, Mechanics and equipment http://uotechnology.edu.iq/dep-mechanicsandequipment/english/lectur...

World Meteorological Organisation, 2003  KEEPING THE RECORD HOMOGENEOUS AND ADJUSTING CHANGES WITH DIRECT TECHNIQUES Coordinator of text: Enric Aguilar (Contributions by : Enric Aguilar, Inge Auer, Manola Brunet, Thomas C. Peterson, and Jon Wieringa) Edited by: Paul Llansó  http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/wcp/wcdmp/wcdmp_series/documents/WCDM...

VHA - Experiment 1 Measuring an occurrence -  Appendix A

In VHA - Experiment 1 Measuring an occurrence it was shown that vehicles producing 80,000 kJ/min and when close to Meteorological Stations affect the temperature readings at those stations.

In Appendix A the experiment is repeated and compared to Jandakot Meteorological Station 25 km to the south. Jandakot was chosen as it is a similar distance from the ocean and at present appears unaffected by VHA

Games were once again scheduled at Inglewood oval for Sunday 14th February 2016 and the roster is a follows 

D Grade 14-Feb-16
9:30 AM
A Grade 14-Feb-16
9:30 AM
Triple-A 14-Feb-16
12:00 PM
C Grade 14-Feb-16
12:30 PM
State 14-Feb-16
League 3:15 PM

Similar increases in the rate of variance were found during those game times as in the initial experiment.

When compared to Jandakot it is seen that during all test periods the temperature rose to higher than that at Jandakot and in Fig 1 and Fig 3  beginning from a lower starting point. 

It is no surprise that the 5:45 Variances this week were lower and the 8:00 departure from Inglewood Bowls unapparent, due to it being Valentine's Day, with lower attendance numbers and earlier departures. This caused them to parallel Jandakot in Fig 4. In Fig 2 temps began 0.7 degrees warmer in Perth and ended 0.9 degree higher after an initial cooling. There was no Saturday Night function at Inglewood Bowls. 

In Fig 5 - 8 at all times over the experiment the variations at Perth were greater than at Jandakot. 

 

Once again VHA has been shown to be easy to reproduce, it now has been shown to cause variations in temperature greater than neighbouring meteorological stations. With so few vehicles causing the variations,doubt must be thrown on all of the climate models, recordings of record heat waves and hottest years.

Reference:

Baseball WA - Competitions https://sportsdesq.imgstg.com/portal/index.cfm?fuseaction=main&...

Bureau of Meteorology Australia http://www.bom.gov.au/products/IDW60901/IDW60901.94608.shtml

Google Maps - Inglewood Oval https://www.google.com.au/maps?hl=en 

Google Maps - Jandakot Airport https://www.google.com.au/maps/@-32.1013124,115.8847054,1545m/data=!3m1!1e3?hl=en

Philp, Len 2016  Vehicle Heat Affect - The Climate Study not begun 

Philp, Len 2016 Vehicle Heat Affect - The Forgotten History.

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Comment by 上由 Leonard 李安 on 在February二月 12, 2016 at 添加的评论10:18

D Ray, better still suggest a site and I will contact BOM and get the data from the 7th. 

Comment by 上由 Leonard 李安 on 在February二月 12, 2016 at 添加的评论10:06

Lorenzo,

Thanks for the reply and I also wish you and your family well.

I have always had a niggling feeling that we have jumped on the, CO2 is the cause of our global problem, bandwagon too quickly. I am not a denier and recognise that there is a problem. It's just the cause I have a problem with.

The first point is that CO2 is the heaviest gas in the atmosphere. In still air it would sink to the bottom. Thankfully for someone who is only 170 cm tall mixing and swirling don't let it settle and it gets taken as high as the stratosphere but that those levels are higher in the Southern hemisphere than in the North, as discussed, makes me ask why, where others have not.

VHA is showing to be another possible cause to the rising temps in the troposphere and I would hope to create enough debate so that it is further investigated. If we don't keep looking for the cause we could be spending billions not to fix the problem which is not just a waste of money but endangers the planet. 

Re: the difference between the North and the South. I have another theory on that, which has to do with the melting Ice in the Arctic being the cause and not the result of Climate Change and that rapid melting being quickened by man with 200 + years of breaking up the Ice. (Very Often ridiculed but never investigated) 

That theory is harder to prove and would cost money to do so, however, with the Science being so readily called as confirmed, no science on alternatives is being done. 

Comment by 上由 Leonard 李安 on 在February二月 12, 2016 at 添加的评论9:39

D Ray, You have a point, please suggest a site which you would like to see compared to the next games at Inglewood Oval in Perth. 

How is my assumption not correct? Is a better question. So far I have shown three AU stations which are affected in this way. It only takes one compromised station reporting incorrect data to flaw the global system. Sure only by a miniscule amount, however, what if I am correct and 10, 100, 1000 10,000 stations are flawed in this way. This is a major compromise of the  Global Data. Combined with no adjustment for the increasing number of vehicles registered, in the historical data which also matches the temperature increases, I'd say like a glove but I don't want to do an O.J. Simpson. 

I agree that more research needs to be done and a great start is your suggestion. However, that more research needs to be done on VHA, which has never been investigated and so easily dismissed by the educated elite, we can't say the science on Climate Change is complete based on these initial figures. 

Comment by 上由 D Ray on 在February二月 12, 2016 at 添加的评论7:37

Two major issues leap out at me. The first is are there similar rises observed at stations placed away from car traffic or not?? If you detected a difference in the evolution of temperature between sites close to traffic and those away from traffic and presented that it would be more conclusive and interesting to note that local effect on air temperature measurement. If that was demonstrated it would be a significant result.

That you take the massive leap and then declare all temperature measurement as flawed and then going on from that to question all heatwave records and climate change science is a massive leap not supported in any way by your arguments or data. While some stations are in urban areas and may or may not ( as I have said you havn't demonstrated there is a difference between car effected and non-car effected sites) be effected by UHI or vehicle heat, most stations used In the surface air temperature record in Australian and globally are not in urban areas and not exposed to these influences, yet show the same rises in surface air temperature.

Darren

Comment by 上由 Lorenzo Hyland on 在February二月 11, 2016 at 添加的评论19:55

Dear Len, I send your family my prayers for health and happiness always.

I really like what you have done in this report.  It's brilliantly done! Congratulations! Your thesis is creative and refreshing.  I am curious what brought you to this interesting idea as to what is causing the appearance of global warming?  

Also, I have seen a study on the Natural News, showing that while the northern hemisphere appears to be in a slight warming trend, the southern hemisphere is in a definite cooling trend!  Now, if the data shows a southern hemisphere cooling trend, and it is inadvertently (artificially) being increased at stations in Australia and other places (due to traffic), then that must mean that the cooling trend in the southern hemisphere must be even more intense than we had originally thought!

By the way, do they blend the northern and southern data to arrive at a global temperature?

I don't have the slightest idea what to believe at this point.  There are so many bogus scientific studies floating around which have been commissioned by those with a hidden agenda on both sides.  People are very emotionally attached to one camp or another. What are your thoughts on the temperature trend for the whole world?

 No one debates that we need to stop polluting and destroying our Mother Earth.  However, questioning global warming makes one appear to be like a Holocaust "denier!" 

Also, the number of leaking nuclear power facilities all over the world, like Fukushima, seems to be an even more immediate "inconvenient truth!"  Maybe the builders of those facilities are supporting the global warming thesis, to get the public attention on something else as being the real cause of the destruction of your planet..

Len, thanks for the good work you are doing!

Warmest Regards,

Lorenzo :-)

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